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Drug Nutrient Interactions - References

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  1. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:2200-2211. Abstract.
  2. Spinella M, Eaton LA. Hypomania induced by herbal and pharmaceutical psychotropic  medicines following mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2002 Apr; 16(4):359-67. (see reference SSRIs)
  3. Dannawi M. Possible serotonin syndrome after combination of buspirone and St. John's Wort J Psychopharmacol. 2002 Dec; 16(4):401. No abstract available.
  4. Lilja JJ, Kivisto KT, Backman JT, et al. Grapefruit juice substantially increases plasma concentrations of buspirone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Dec; 64(6):655-60.


  1. Breen GA. Hypoprothrombinemia associated with cefmetazole Ann Pharmacother. 1997 Feb 31 (2) :180-4.


  1. Pelton R. LaValle JB. Drugs and Their Effects on Nutrition. In: The Nutritional Cost of Prescription Drugs. 2nd Edition Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company; 2004, 34-35.
  2. Horowitz S. Combining supplements and prescription drugs. Altern Complete Ther. 2000.pp.306.


  1. Brinker F. Vitamin/mineral/drug interactions. In:Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 3rd ed. Dandy, Ore: Eclectic Medical Publications; 2001.pp.306 


  1. Foulds G, Hilligoss DM, Henery EB, Gerber N. The effects of an antacid or cimetidine on the serum concentrations of azithromycin. J Clin Pharmacol. 1991; 31:164-167. Abstract.
  2. Flockhart DA, Desta Z, Mahal SK. Selection of drugs to treat gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: the role of drug interactions. Clin Pharmakinet. 2000 Oct;39 (4):295-309.


  1. Nestler JE, Beer NA, Jakubowicz DJ, et al. Effects of a reduction in circulating insulin by metformin on serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in non-diabetic men J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1994 Mar;78(3):549-54.
  2. Crave JC, Fimbel S, Lejeune H, et al. Effects of diet and metformin administration on sex hormone-binding globulin, androgens, and insulin in hirsute and obese women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1995 Jul; 80(7):2057-62. 


  1. Izzo AA. Drug interactions with St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum): a review of the clinical evidence. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Mar; 42(3):139-48.
  2. Wang Z, Hamman MA, Huang SM, et al. Effect of St. John's Wort on the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 20002 Jun; 71(6):414-20.
  3. Dresser GK, Bailey DG. The effects of fruit juices on drug disposition: a new model for drug interactions. Eur J Clin Invest. 2003 Nov; 33 Suppl 2:10-6.


  1. Dursun SM, Oluboka OJ, Devarajan S, Kutcher SP. High-dose vitamin E plus Vitamin B6 treatment of risperidone-related neuroleptic malignant syndrome. J Psychopharmacol. 1998; 12(2):220-1.
  2. Javitt DC, Silipo G, Cienfuegos A, Shelley AM, et al. Adjunctive high-dose glycine in the treatment of schizophrenia. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2001 Dec; 4(4):385-91.
  3. Heresco-Levy U, Ermilov M, Lichtenberg P, Bar G, Javitt DC. High-dose glycine added to olanzapine and risperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jan 15;55(2):165-71.
  4. Potkin SG, Jin Y, Bunney BG, Costa J, Gulasekaram B. Effect of clozapine and adjunctive high-dose glycine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Jan; 156(1):145-7.


  1.  Brinker F, Vitamin/mineral/drug interactions In: Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 3rd ed. Dandy, Ore: Eclectic Medical Publications; 2001.pp. 305.
  2. Herbs Ibid. pp 27-42.


  1. Miller LG. Herbal medicinals: Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:2200-2211. Abstract. 
  2. Stevinson C, Huntley A, Ernst E. Systemic review of the safety of kava extract in the treatment of anxiety. Drug Saf 2002;25 (4) :251-61.
  3. Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL, et al. Effect of St John's wort on drug metabolism by induction of cytochrome P450 3A enzyme. JAMA. 2003 Sep 17; 290(11):1500-4.


  1. Gehr TW, Sica DA. Pharmacotherapy in congestive heart failure: Hyperkalemia in congestive heart failure. Congest Heart Fail. 2001 Mar-Apr; 7(2):97-100.
  2. Rosa RM, Silva P, Young JB, et al. Adrenergic modulation of extrarenal potassium disposal. N Engl J Med. 1980 Feb 21; 302(8):431-4.
  3. Bano G, Raina RK, Zutshi U, et al. Effect of piperine on bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of propranolol and theophylline in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1991; 41(6):615-7.
  4. Laer S, Neumann J, Scholz H. Interaction between sotalol and an antacid preparation. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1997 Mar; 43(3):269-72.
  5. Sasse M, Paul T, Bergmann P, et al. Sotalol associated torsades de pointes tachycardia in a 15-month-old child: successful therapy with magnesium aspartate. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998 May; 21(5):1164-6.
  6. Forlani S, Moscarelli M, Scafuri A, et al. Combination therapy for prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized trial of sotalol and magnesium. Card Electrophysiol Rev. 2003 Jun; 7(2):168-71.

Calcium Channel Blockers

  1. Haft JI, Habbab MA. Treatment of atrial arrhythmias. Effectiveness of verapamil when preceded by calcium infusion. Arch Intern Med. 1986;146:1085-89. Abstract.
  2. Weiss AT, Lewis BS, Halon DA, et al. The use of calcium with verapamil in the management of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Int J Cardiol. 1983;4:275-80. Abstract.
  3. Threlkeld DS, ed. Diuretics and Cardiovasculars, Calcium Channel Blocking Agents.In Facts and Comparisons Drug Information St. Louis, MO; Facts and Comparisons, Nov 1992, 150-150b.
  4. Tannergren C, Engman H, Knutson L, et al. St John's wort decreases the bioavailability of R- and S-verapamil through induction of the first-pass metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Apr; 75(4):298-309.
  5. Bailey DG, Dresser GK, Kreeft JH, et al. Grapefruit-felodipine interaction: effect of unprocessed fruit and probable active ingredients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2000 Nov;68(5):468-77.
  6. Baily DG, Arnold MD, Strong HA, Munoz C, Spence JD, et al. Effect of grapefruit juice and maringin on nisoldipine pharmacokinetics. Cli Pharmacol Ther.1993;54:589-94. Abstract

Diuretics, Potassium-Sparing

  1. Devane J, Ryan MP. The effects of amiloride and triamterene on urinary magnesium excretion in conscious saline-loaded rats. Br J Pharmacol 1981;72:285-89

HIV Antivirals 

  1. Henderson L, Yue QY, Bergquist C, et al. St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum): drug interactions and clinical outcomes. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2002 Oct;54(4):349-56. Review.
  2. James JS. St. John's wort warning: do not combine with protease inhibitors, NNRTIs. AIDS Treat News. 2000 Feb 18 ;( No 337):3-5.
  3. Piras G, Makino M, Baba M. Sho-saiko-to, a traditional Kampo medicine, enhances the anti-HIV-1 activity of lamivudine (3TC) in vitro. Microbiol Immunol. 1997; 41(10):835-9. 
  4. Moretti S, Famularo G, Marcellini S, et al. L-carnitine reduces lymphocyte apoptosis and oxidant stress in HIV-1-infected subjects treated with zidovudine and didanosine. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2002 Jun;4(3):391-403.
  5. Lopez O, Bonnefont-Rousselot D, Edeas M, et al. Could antioxidant supplementation reduce antiretroviral therapy-induced chronic stable hyperlactatemia? Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 May-Jun; 57(3-4):113-6.
  6. Patrick L. Nutrients and HIV: part three - N-acetylcysteine, alpha-lipoic acid, L-glutamine, and L-carnitine. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Aug;5(4):290-305. Review.
  7. Gogu SR, Agrawal KC. The protective role of zinc and N-acetylcysteine in modulating zidovudine induced hematopoietic toxicity. Life Sci. 1996; 59(16):1323-9.
  8. Gogu SR, Beckman BS, Rangan SR, Agrawal KC. Increased therapeutic efficacy of zidovudine in combination with vitamin E. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989 Nov 30;165(1):401-7
  9. Wang Y, Watson RR. Is vitamin E supplementation a useful agent in AIDS therapy? Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1993 Oct-Dec;17(4):351-75. Review. 
  10. de la Asuncion JG, del Olmo ML, Sastre J, et al. AZT treatment induces molecular and ultrastructural oxidative damage to muscle mitochondria. Prevention by antioxidant vitamins. J Clin Invest. 1998 Jul 1; 102(1):4-9.

NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)

  1. Sorenson JRJ. Copper chelates as possible active forms of the antiarthritic agents. J Medicinal Chem 1976;19:135-48.
  2. Somova L, Zaharieva S, Ivanova M. Humoral factors involved in the regulation of sodium-fluid balance in normal man. II. Effects of indomethacin on sodium concentration, renal prostaglandins, vasopressin and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1984;10:29-33.

Non-Narcotic Pain Relievers 

  1. Brinker F, Vitamin/mineral/drug interactions In: Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 3rd ed. Dandy, Ore: Eclectic Medical Publications; 2001.pp. 183

Oral Contraceptives 

  1. Newhouse IJ, Clement DB, Lai C. Effects of iron supplementation and discontinuation on serum copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium levels in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993 May; 25(5):562-71.
  2. Milman N, Rosdahl N, Lyhne N, et al. Iron status in Danish women aged 35-65 years. Relation to menstruation and method of contraception. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1993 Nov; 72(8):601-5.
  3. Frassinelli-Gunderson EP, Margen S, Brown JR. Iron stores in users of oral contraceptive agents. Am J Clin Nutr. 1985 Apr; 41(4):703-12.

Respiratory Corticosteroids

  1. Smith BJ, Phillips PJ, Pannall PR, et al. Effect of orally administered beclomethasone dipropionate on calcium absorption from the gut in normal subjects. Thorax. 1993 Sep; 48(9):890-3.

Synthetic thyroid

  1. Beard JL, Borel M, Peterson FJ. Changes in iron status during weight loss with very low-energy diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:104-110. Abstract.
  2. Beard JL, Borel MJ, Derr J. Impaired thermoregulation and thyroid function in iron deficiency anemia. Am J Clin Nutr 1990;52:813-819. Abstract.
  3. Campbell NR, Hasinoff BB. Iron supplements: A common cause of drug interactions. Brit J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;31:251-255. Abstract.
  4. Jabbar MA, Larrea J, Shaw RA. Abnormal thyroid function tests in infants with congenital hypothyroidism: The influence of soy-based formulas. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:280-282. Abstract.
  5. Threlkeld DS, ed. Hormones, Thyroid Hormones. In: Facts and Comparisons Drug Information. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons; 1991:131-133c.